An otoacoustic emission (OAE) is a sound which is generated from within the inner ear. Having been predicted by Thomas Gold in 1948, its existence was first demonstrated experimentally by David Kemp in 1978 and otoacoustic emissions have since been shown to arise through a number of different cellular and mechanical causes within the inner ear. Studies have shown that OAEs disappear after the inner ear has been damaged, so OAEs are often used in the laboratory and the clinic as a measure of inner ear health.
OAEs are considered to be related to the amplification function of the cochlea. In the absence of external stimulation, the activity of the cochlear amplifier increases, leading to the production of sound. Several lines of evidence suggest that, in mammals, outer hair cells are the elements that enhance cochlear sensitivity and frequency selectivity and hence act as the energy sources for amplification. One theory is that they act to increase the discriminability of signal variations in continuous noise by lowering the masking effect of its cochlear amplification.
There is a lot to like about The Nourishing Traditions Book of Baby and Child Care by Sally Fallon Morrell and Thomas S Cowan. Some of it is exceptionally well-researched (other things I thought were a little sketchy or questionable, see further below). I could never list all the awesome things the book discusses, but some of the highlights for me include:
The relationships between otoacoustic emissions and tinnitus have been explored. Several studies suggest that in about 6% to 12% of normal-hearing persons with tinnitus and SOAEs, the SOAEs are at least partly responsible for the tinnitus. Studies have found that some subjects with tinnitus display oscillating or ringing EOAEs, and in these cases, it is hypothesized that the oscillating EOAEs and tinnitus are related to a common underlying pathology rather than the emissions being the source of the tinnitus.
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There are myriad sections without references. At other times the authors reference secondary sources (in discussing toilet training they note that "Pediatrician Lindy Woodard believes that a child can and should be trained by thirty months; in her professional experience, children who are trained at an older age have more problems learning to use the toilet." p. 168). Often the subject of a section would lack focus and context, such as p. 209 where the authors talk about "soul disorders" in reference to mental health. One assumes they are referencing the work of someone else, but it isn't cited or put into context. This leaves the reader to wonder why the authors would consider if "wisdom teeth extraction impacts our souls."
- An apparent misunderstanding about baby-led weaning. The book says that baby-led weaning is to be resisted and that baby's parents should be squarely in charge of what baby eats from the beginning. I did a combination of purees and baby-led weaning with both my children, and I was always squarely in charge of what they ate and what they were offered. Part of my role as a mother is to prepare nourishing foods for my children. Whether they pick at it and hand-feed themselves or whether I offered it mushed up on a spoon is irrelevant. The book fails to recognise that a child can only choose food from that which they have been offered or is available. If only nourishing food is offered and available, then that is what the child will choose.
I am a stay-at-home mom of a 4-year-old boy and 1. 5-year-old boy. I am looking for an infant/toddler to watch in our home, in addition to my own boys. We are a smoke-free home and have a friendly Shih tzu dog who has been a part of our family since before my 1st son was born. I have 16 years of child care experience and have a Bachelor's Degree in Human Development and Family Studies. I have open availability during the week and am also available on nights and weekends too! I am very flexible when it comes to drop off and pick up times. I would love to be able to watch your child, teach them and allow them to grow and develop. Activities throughout the day will meet your child's physical, emotional and social needs. I would love the opportunity to help out your family in caring for your child.